Sunday, August 23, 2020

MTV Filming Style Precious

MTV Filming Style Precious Valuable has various highlights that an unconventional to the MTV recording style. To start with, explicit consideration ought to be given to the dynamic development of the camera and the going with sound tracks. A portion of the scenes are denied of liquid and smooth developments of the camera, as it is introduced in the workmanship film style.Advertising We will compose a custom report test on MTV Filming Style: Precious explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More specifically, the image is progressively centered around unmoving introductions of close-ups that are quickly changed by powerful scenes. Explicit consideration requires the scene when Precious takes a test and when she goes to the classes. The area of battling with another young lady is spoken to by methods for different camera developments from various edges. Rather than craftsmanship film style, it appears that no advanced altering frameworks have been applied to the shooting procedure. Specifically, the man ager doesn't choose groupings of shots to make a completed item. Interestingly, the film is introduced as a lot of arbitrarily picked cuts, which add to its elements. In the film, there are likewise streak outlines that exchange with still scenes. In particular, at the absolute starting point, there is a scene that portrays the courageous woman sitting in her room and glancing through the old collection and her mom moving in another room before the TV set. At long last, the film style need coherence, which is another element of MTV film style. Consequently, the executive doesn't present ensuing shots from different points. There is a scene when every scene is joined by photographs. This methodology is utilized to underscore the significance of the heroine’s recollections about her family. It additionally permits the perusers to join reality with Precious’s illusionary portrayal of the world. Valuable. Ex. Maker. Lee Daniels United States: Lionsgate, 2009. DVD.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Choosing the Right Application of Multiple Intelligence Theory Essay

All through the most recent fifty years, instructors have discussed what strategies for educating are best. These techniques incorporate numerous boundaries, from the more customary strategy for instructing, where educators address, understudies tune in, and are relied upon to learn, to experiential training, which generally expects understudies to adopt a hands on strategy to each exercise. Both of these extraordinary strategies have excessively explicit of a methodology. A blend of learning styles, or different insights, is required to instruct effectively. The presentation of the different insight hypothesis has decidedly profited instructing by urging instructors to animate each student’s learning quality ordinary; paying little mind to the conventional encouraging strategies all the more ordinarily utilized. The numerous knowledge hypothesis was made by Howard Gardner, and has been summed up pleasantly by McCain and Weiten (2004). â€Å"He proposes the presence of various moderately self-sufficient human insights. To construct his rundown of independent insights, Gardner checked on the proof on intellectual limits in ordinary people, individuals experiencing cerebrum harm, and uncommon populaces, for example, wonders and nitwit academics. He presumed that people show eight insights: intelligent numerical, phonetic, melodic, spatial, real sensation, relational, intrapersonal, and naturalist† (p. 380). Mr. Gardner has put forth attempts to demonstrate that each understudy learns their own specific manner. He says that, â€Å"Students learn in manners that are recognizably particular. The wide range of understudies, and maybe the general public all in all, eventual better served if orders could be introduced in various manners and learning could be surveyed through an assortment of means.† (Gardner, 1991, p.... ...satiate for their more vulnerable abilities, with their more grounded ones. Instructors discussing whether to utilize the various knowledge hypothesis need to consider that â€Å"it includes making rich encounters in which understudies with various insight profiles can interface with the materials and thoughts utilizing their specific mixes of qualities and weaknesses.† (Moran, Kornhaber, and Gardner, 2006, p. 27). The Key School in Indiana accepts that all youngsters ought to have their kind of knowledge stirred each day (Gardner, 1991, p. 215). Finishing a school day realizing that understudies will have all gotten an opportunity to feel like fruitful students must be an objective that teachers endeavor to accomplish. This is a conviction that would permit all learning pieces in a child’s brain to be animated, each day. This likewise incorporates understudies with being the most multi-faceted people conceivable.

Thursday, July 9, 2020

Graduate School and Dissertations

Graduate School and DissertationsThe PhD dissertation is a more complex and comprehensive project than the PhD thesis. You will use a professional source to research your topic and complete the dissertation but still find yourself in the position of having to readjust what you wrote based on your research. Keep these things in mind and you'll be fine.While writing your dissertation, think of yourself as a student. Do you write about your own class or classmates? If so, use that in your dissertation. Think about what topics you would like to talk about with this student, and what topics you would like to talk about with other students. It will help you focus on what you do want to write about and help keep things organized.Your academic advisor should be able to recommend a publication outlet for your dissertation. There are several on-line options, and the NEA may have one if they are willing to approve your work. The Journal of Experimental Medicine can also be an option. For journa l publications, take the time to review all the format options. There are some, such as the Journal of Clinical Medical Science, that provide other publication options and information on the scientific impact of the manuscript.It is important to make sure your dissertation will be publishable, and you have enough secondary information and references. In general, the more detailed and thorough the research, the better. Find out if a professional editor will look at your work before the submission date, and if it passes muster. You will likely not be able to use a professional editor, unless you are a living legend, so make sure you have sufficient research.If you are submitting your CV, you need to consider a CV revision when the submission date arrives. Make sure you have this information ready. It is possible to have your CV accepted for submission while it is being edited, and sometimes the journal will let the editor know.It is usually a good idea to have a second format for your CV to keep in your possession, such as a PDF or MS Word version. When it comes to submitting your dissertation, this might be the easiest way to do it. Make sure you understand the formality and how to present yourself in it.If you find you aren't getting good feedback in your graduate school, there is no need to worry. A great program for doctoral dissertation advisors can really help you. They can give you a list of suggestions and advice, and have strong connections to the institution where you will teach in the future.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Secret to Humor is Surprise in The Weather of New...

Critical Analysis Essay â€Å"The secret to humor is surprise-Aristotle.† The two stories Im going to talk about â€Å"The Weather of New England† by Mark Twain and â€Å"The Dog That Bit People† by James Thurber are both strange humorous essay with a twist. Both stories have a central conflict, in â€Å"The Dog That Bit People† a family is burden with a dog that bites everyone, including the narrator. â€Å"The Weather of New England† talks about the weather of the new colonies and how spontaneous they were and the different forms they came in. Both humorous authors use style, tone, and perspective as a technique to tell their story and conflicts. Mark Twain uses style in â€Å"The Weather of New England†, when he uses words like â€Å"sumptuous† and â€Å"Centennial† to describe whats going on in the story. The author refers to the weather as â€Å"sumptuous† saying that there are splendid and lavish varieties of the weather of New England that cause a stranger to admire and regret or pity the weather. He also says that â€Å"the brightest gems in the New England weather is the dazzling uncertainty.† The authors uses words like â€Å"dazzling† to show his style. His style is sarcastic because he makes the uncertainty of not knowing what the weathers going to be as a good thing when really the unexpected weather is causing problems. The author of The Dog That Bit People James Thurber on one hand uses hyperboles like Mark Twain ,but on the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Parable Of The Sower - 1217 Words

Film and novels cannot be a part of the dystopian genre without having certain characteristics. Among these characteristics Parable of the Sower displays the traits needed to create a dystopian novel. Parable of the Sower belongs in this genre because it illustrates a restrictment of independent thought, the natural world is distrusted, and citizens live in a dehumanized state. One of the common traits dystopian novels include is, information, independent thought, and freedom are restricted. In Parable of the Sower it is not easy to get information about what happens outside of the walls. The way most families get their information is by radio. When Lauren and the rest go on the road they no longer have information on what is going on in other cities or the dangers of fires ahead of the road. The restrictment of independent thought is not seen much outside of Laurens community, but it is heavily seen in her community. Lauren tried to say what she thought to Joanne thinking that she would understand and agree with her, but it did not work the way Lauren wanted it to. In her journal entry Lauren wrote â€Å"I felt on the verge of talking to her about things I hadn’t talked about before. I’d written about them. Sometimes I write to keep from going crazy. There’s a world of things I don’t feel free to talk to anyone about. But Joanne is a friend. She knows me better than most people, and she has a brain. Why not talk to her? Sooner or later, I have to talk to someone. †Show MoreRelatedThe Parable Of The Sower1062 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstand the nature and purpose of the parable, in order for understanding and interpreting Jesus’ parables. The parable of the sower is considered as the great watershed of all Jesus’ parables. I believe that the right way to express the continuity and the development of Jesus’ thoughts about the connection between the kingdom and himself is by understanding the parable of the Sower. The author in Kingdom, Grace, and Judgement describes the parable of the sower by breaking it into five different proposalsRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower753 Words   |  4 Pagespaper will be taken from Matthew 13: 3- 23 . Let’s summarize the parable for a clear understanding for the reader. Jesus began to discuss His discourse of the parable of the sower who sows seeds on different ground for it to grow and produce. Jesus cites three examples how the seeds were sown in this parable and how the ground responded. According to Dr. James Gibson defined a parable as â€Å"to place beside.† Jesus often used parables to teach mysteries to His disciples and others. Dr. Gibson refersRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower1570 Words   |  7 PagesSpring 2013 Earthseed: The Books of the Living The Parable of the Sower By Lauren Oya Olamina ; Lorem Ipsum Dolor Spring 2016 The Parable of the Sower Earthseed is a fictional religion based on the idea that â€Å"God is Change.† Created by Octavia Butler, this story is told by the main character Lauren Oya Olamina in both of her books: Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents. There was supposed to be a third book to this trilogy series, Parable of the Trickster, but Butler was unable to completeRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower1789 Words   |  8 Pagesthe author or of the intended audience or both.† The Parable of the Sower (Mark 4:1-12, NRSV) is written with the intent to teach a lesson to the reader. Jesus shares a parable with a large group of people and later explores this with his disciples. This passage gives the reader the chance to hear the parable and also its intended meaning. Whilst this story is popular in catholic teaching, it is not exclusive to Mark. The Parable of the Sower can also be found in Matthew 13:1-23, Mark 4:10-12 andRead MoreThe Parable of the Sower674 Words   |  3 PagesThe Parable of the Sower The Parables are a section of the Matthews Evangelium in the Christian Bible. It is a common inspiration and focus for interpretation or themes during sermon. The Parables consist of tales that Jesus is said to have been a crowd of people following him and they explained Goods word and moral by using ordinary events. Following each Parable is an interpretation of it –made to state what the parable actually wants to explain to us. The first of these parables is theRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower861 Words   |  4 PagesCultivate Your Mind In the Parable of the Sower, Jesus points out that it is only when the seed is sown in good soil that it brings forth an abundance. The soil / soul comparison makes clear what is often ignored about prayer: it is not the seed, but the condition of the soil (soul) that determines the size of the harvest. It is not by sowing more seeds, but by improving the soil, that we increase the quantity and improve the quality of the results. In the parable, the birds of judgment negateRead MoreParable of the Sower531 Words   |  3 Pagesplays a key role in this story and shows how being an individualistic society can be the downfall to the strongest country in the world. This essay will discuss the struggle of man versus man, man versus nature, and the authors intent in Parable of the Sower. Butler talks about many aspects of life and the struggle to survive, and this essay will explore three main ideas that occurred in this book. The struggle of man versus man occurs throughout the whole story. The book starts out thatRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower2295 Words   |  10 Pagesused parables to pass earthly stories with a heavenly meaning to the multitude. He used parables in His teachings to not only fulfill prophecy but also to enlighten the true hearted to challenge hardened hearts of the people (Matt. 13:34-35, KJV). Among His parables, the parable of the sower was the parable inclusive of other parables (soil grounds and the sower) making it one of the main parables of Christ. Four different soils were used to represent four different kinds of people and a sower wasRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower Essay1796 Words   |  8 Pages The Parable of the Sower tells the story of several seeds, each of which had been placed into different conditions. The contrasting faith journeys of Nathan, Frank, and Ruth of the Drum family can each be connected to one such seed. Nathan, the seed in good soil, Frank, the s eed in rocky places, and Ruth, the seed among the thorns, were all tested by tragedy. In his book Ordinary Grace, William Kent Krueger uses the response of each person to prove that although extent of faith can vary greatlyRead MoreParable Of The Sower Essay902 Words   |  4 PagesSegregation Parable of the Sower hypothesizes around the ascent of a period of psychological oppression in America, a method of terrorism that inundates the quaint, generally more well off white-collar community. It additionally poses many dangers and consequences for those of wealthier classes. Parable of the Sower has is set in Los Angeles and California, in a near future in which human life is deteriorating and culture is plummeting to brutality. Almost every person in Parable of the Sower struggles

Challenges with an Ageing Population †

Question: Discuss about the Challenges with an Ageing Population. Answer: Introduction The rapid increase in the ageing population has become a cause for concern for many nations that are presently grappling with such a situation. Many countries are having a large ageing population and this is invariably having a negative impact on their economy. An ageing population contributes to a decline in the working age population which leads to a shortage of qualified workers who can contribute to a nations growth and prosperity (Bloom, et al., 2015). It creates a rise in the healthcare costs as the demand for healthcare invariably rises with age thereby forcing the government to allocate and spend more money and resources on their public healthcare systems. Ageing population creates an increase in the dependency ratio as there is large elderly population which is dependent on the taxes paid by the smaller pool of workers for getting their pension benefits and other public funded facilities. This assignment will invariably discuss the rise in the ageing population in Japan and Singapore and how both the countries are trying to cope up with the challenges of managing the ageing population in their respective nations (Borji, 2016). The Demographic Changes There are three factors which essentially affect the size and age of the population in Asia. These are the witnessed trend of continuous baby boom, the rapid reduction in the male and female fertility rates and the decline in the mortality rates creates an increased pressure on the healthcare services of any country. In Singapore, the period of baby boom lasted nearly two decades from 1946 to 1965. The year 1965 is an important year for Singapore as the country became independent. The total yearly births remained 38,654 during the first year of baby boom and it steadily increased to 62,495 births in 1957. The number of births remained steady at around 60000 births until 1964 after which it steadily decreased to around 44,562 in 1969. After 1980, there was a marked increase in the number of live births and this trend continued till 1995. After 2000, the birth rate slowly decreased and this period after 2000 was marked by a low birth rate (Roy, 2014). The fertility rate in Singapore remained at high level during the period between 1947 and 1957. It was 6.5 during this period. The baby boom transformed into a baby bust due to the rapid fall in the fertility rates among the Singaporean population during the early 1980s. The period between the late 1960s and the early 1970s were market by a temperamen tal shift in how the people perceived family planning and birth control(Ferraro Shippee, 2009). Women had greater access to birth control techniques and the Government of Singapore introduced changes in their existing laws which went a long way in changing the perception and attitude of the general population towards womens role in the society (Roy, 2014). Improved life expectancy along with declining fertility in recent years has contributed to a large ageing population in Singapore. During the year 2000, the life expectancy stood at an all time high of 80.4 years. The rise in living standards and improving nutrition levels combined with better education and awareness contributed mainly towards the low mortality rates during the first half of the 20th century contributed largely to the ageing population in Singapore. Japans population has increased during the post war period from about 93.4 million in 1960 to around 128 million in 2010. This shows an increase of 37% in the overall population. However, the main cause of concern for Japan is that the number of persons below the age of 15 years has been witnessing a steady decline till the 1980s after which there was a rapid decline till the present moment. The population size of persons below 15 years of age was only 16.8 million in 2010. This statistics indicate that the proportion of children in the overall population has shrunk down considerably from 30% in 1960 to 13% in 2010. Contrastingly the proportion of elderly population has risen continuously from 1960 to 2010. The number of people above the age of 65 years was 5.4 million in 1960 and this was 29 million in 2010 recording an increase of almost five and a half times (Tsuya, 2014). This rapid pace of ageing population is attributed as a major factor for the problems associated with populat ion ageing which is being faced by Japan. In terms of fertility rate, there was a sharp decline in the fertility rate in the period after the Second World War. The Total fertility rate dropped down from 4.5 in 1947 to 2.0 in 1957. The fertility rate in Japan stabilised at the levels of 2.0 to 2.2 children per women till 1974 after which it recorded a decline again. The developments and advancements made in the fields of healthcare services in both Singapore and Japan have played a vital role in bring down the mortality rates in both the nations. It has played a major role in increasing the life expectancy of the people in both the countries which has invariably contributed to the present problems associated with an ageing population in both the nations (Tamiya, et al., 2011). The Policies The issue of the ageing population in Singapore has been on the national agenda since the 1980s and the Singaporean government has undertaken several high level committees to study the ageing trends in that country. Singapore is tackling the problem of ageing population with an inter-agency approach that takes into accounts inputs and feedbacks from the general population at the time of policy making. During the 1980s the government recognised the fact that the population was ageing rapid and thus they focused their efforts and attention on identifying and anticipating the needs of the elderly population (Goh, 2006). The Committee on the Problems of the Aged was formed in 1982 and was chaired by the Minister for Health and their main purpose was to study the impacts of an ageing population on the country and provide solutions to tackle the challenges. During the 1990s, an Inter-Ministerial Committee on the Ageing Population (IMC) was set up for creating a coordinated national response to the challenges which emerged from an ageing society. It aimed at facilitating a successful ageing process by showcasing a high degree of preparedness for the challenges and opportunities which emerged from an ageing population (Sanderson Scherbov, 2010). The Singaporean Government has introduced holistic and affordable healthcare and eldercare which emphasises on disease prevention and health promotion. The government promotes personal responsibility for healthcare by encouraging the elderly population to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle in their respective communities for as long as possible. The Singapore government provides lifelong financial planning for their citizens. Under Singapores Central Provident Fund (CPF) system, the elderly population is responsible for planning and saving which would help to ensure their financial security in the old age. The government of Singapore has ensured that older people are employed for as long as possible which helps in ensuring that the elderly population are mentally and physically fit by leading an active lifestyle by enabling them to integrate with the society in an effective manner (Goh, 2006) In Japan, the people above the age of 65 years presently comprise almost a quarter of the total Japanese population. This top heavy demographic aspect has created huge challenges for the Japanese government. In order to tackle this growing problem, the Japanese government is trying to implement innovative programs such as long term care and insurance to advanced robotics which would go a long way in helping Japan to mitigate the problems and challenges faced as a result of their ageing population. Japan is widely considered to be the oldest society on the planet and the worsening situation has compelled the Japanese government to take bold decisions to counter the challenges of an ageing population (Tsuya, 2014). In the year 2000, the Japanese government has launched a long term care insurance which aims to totally change and transform the manner in which healthcare services are presently being delivered to the Japanese population. For revitalising the Japanese economy, the Japanese Prime Minister Mr. Shinzo Abehas launched a new set of reforms which are dubbed Abenomics". It aims to increase the proportion of women in the workforce by further increasing and expanding the inexpensive day-care centres for children and reforming the corporate governance laws in Japan (Marlow, 2015). The Japanese government has chosen to supplement their national pension plans with the long-term-care insurance (LTCI) and this has result in the LTCI becoming one of the most generous long term care systems of the world as far as benefits and coverage are concerned. This has played a vital role in removing the anxiety and unpredictability associated with elderly care elsewhere. People are able to pay into the system while they are in their 40s and start obtaining the benefits once they reach the age of 65 years (Tamiya, et al., 2011). The LTCI system provides comprehensive coverage of upto $2,900 a month in services, as opposed to cash payment, and it does require "co-payments" from patients. The LTCI co-payments are capped or waived for patients coming from weak economic backgrounds. Japan is considered to be a global leader in advanced robotics and cutting edge technology. There is increasing research going on in Japan in order to ascertain whether the robots can replace the agein g workforce in the different industries of Japan (Marlow, 2015). In the year 2002, the governments of 159 nations took part in theMadrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA) along with representatives from civil society organisations. This was the first global agreement which aimed to recognise the contribution made by the older people to the development of their respective societies. The countries participating in this meeting pledged to consider ageing into all their future social and economic development policies which also includes their poverty reduction programmes (World Health Day 2012: ageing and health, 2012). These would help them to reach their Millennium Development Goals in 2018. The Culture The culture of Singapore is extremely vibrant and it is considered to be a melting pot of different cultures. Looking at the cultural aspect of Singapore it can be safely stated that it is a combination of Asian and European cultures. The culture of Singapore is mainly influenced by Malay, South Asian (Indian), East Asian (Chinese) and Eurasian cultures and this is the main reason why Singapore is considered by many to be a country where the East meets West. The Japanese culture on the other hand has evolved greatly over the years due to its growing interaction with western cultures. The Japanese culture has come a long way since the J?mon period where there was no interaction with the foreign cultures to the modern day contemporary culture which is largely the result of the global influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Culture plays a very important role in determining the outcome of healthcare services. It shapes up the values and perceptions of the general population regarding health and well being and this can play a very important role in determining the health outcomes for the general population. The culture of a nation plays an essential role in determining their diets and food habits and this can have a detrimental impact on the overall health and well being of an individual. The doctor patient communication is another factor that is heavily influenced by the culture of an individual (Vilbig, 2017). The language and literacy barrier is largely influenced by the socio-cultural norms under which an individual grows up and this can play a very important role in determining the outcome of healthcare services. There is a growing need for culturally sensitive policies, solutions and recommendations in order to limit the impact of the ageing population. This would play a very important role in helping the ageing population to integrate with the mainstream society in an effective manner and this would eventually benefit the society as a whole because the young generation can learn from the experience and knowledge which is possessed by the elderly population. Conclusion This assignment has played an important role in helping us to understand the problems faced by Japan and Singapore as a result of their ageing population. We have also gained knowledge about the government policies and interventions which have been adopted by both the nations in order to tackle the problem of the ageing population. We have been able to understand the role of culture in determining the quality of healthcare support that is presently being provided to the ageing population in both the countries. The government of both the nations (Japan and Singapore) are playing a proactive role in tackling the challenges associated with an ageing population and these have played a vital role in helping them to effectively cater to the healthcare needs of their ageing population in an effective manner. Bibliography Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., Fink, G. (2010). Oxford review of economic policy. Implications of population ageing for economic growth , 583-612. Bloom, D. E., Chatterji, S., Kowal, P., Lloyd-Sherlock, P., McKee, M., Rechel, B., et al. (2015). The Lancet. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses , 649-657. Borji, H. (2016). 4 Global Economic Issues of an Aging Population. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from Campbell, N. C., Murray, E., Darbyshire, J., Emery, J., Farmer, A., Griffiths, F., et al. (2007). Designing and evaluating complex interventions to improve health care. BMJ: British Medical Journal , 455. Ferraro, K. F., Shippee, T. P. (2009). Aging and cumulative inequality: How does inequality get under the skin? The Gerontologist. Goh, H. (2006). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from Successful Ageing A Review of Singapore's Policy Approaches: Available at: Harding, A., Gupta, A. (2007). Modelling our future: Population ageing, social security and taxation. Elsevier. Lee, R. D., Mason, A. (2011). Population aging and the generational economy: A global perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing. Marlow, I. (2015). The Globe and Mail. Retrieved September 28, 2017, from Bold steps: Japans remedy for a rapidly aging society: Roy, S. (2014). Baby Boom Generation in Singapore and its Impact on Ageing. International Science Index . Sanderson, W. C., Scherbov, S. (2010). Remeasuring aging. Science. Tamiya, N., Noguchi, H., Nishi, A., Reich, M. R., Ikegami, N., Hashimoto, H., et al. (2011). Population ageing and wellbeing: lessons from Japan's long-term care insurance policy. The Lancet. Tsuya, N. (2014). The Impacts of Population Decline in Japan: Demographic Prospects and Policy Implications. AGE. World Health Day 2012: ageing and health. (2012). Retrieved September 29, 2017, from World Health Organization:

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Women and Islam an Example by

Women and Islam In her work, Hassan speaks about the role women play in Islam. The author refers to the continuous misinterpretation of the Islamic provisions and traditions; as a result of this misinterpretation, a woman in Islam seems to play a role submissive to man. Negative ideas about women that have no base in the Quran have apparently become part of Muslim thinking by assimilation from surrounding cultures (Hassan, 2007, 243). In reality, many schools of Islamic law refute the idea of a woman being inferior to man. Islam teaches men to treat women with kindness and respect (Hassan, 2007, 243). Quran teaches the Muslim community to secure the safety rights of women (Hassan, 2007, 246). Special attention is paid to safety, if a woman is suspected of adultery: the fact of sexual relations will never be proven unless four witnesses can confirm it (Hassan, 2007, 248). Although Quran makes certain reference to disobedient wives, its initial aim is to provide women and men with equal rights to reac h heaven. A woman in marriage plays a special role of mans advisor and supporter (Hassan, 2007, 251). This is why in early Islamic history many Muslim women accompanied their husbands in battles. This is why early Islamic history has given birth to several significant female figures, among which Khadija, Aisha, and Fatima were the most prominent. Need essay sample on "Women and Islam" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed However, even in the light of these promising trends, Islam remains a predominantly male religion. There is as yet no possibility that women can hold positions of spiritual authority in mosques (Hassan, 2007, 258). Islamic traditions vary from country to country, and while some women are allowed to attend the shrines and to beg for spiritual intervention to solve their personal problems, the female majority is forbidden to even approach a saints tomb (Hassan, 2007, 258). Many Islamic communities openly express their negative attitudes towards westernization, thus adding to womens social burden in Islam. Women are still responsible for contraception in sexual relations with their husbands; some smaller communities were known for applying genital mutilation to girls (Hassan, 2007, 261). In many aspects, the Islamic norms which put women on equal terms with men remain unrecognized by the larger Islamic community. For centuries, the major Islamic provisions have been re-interpreted by men. This is why Hassan argues for the importance of studying primary Islamic norms by women (Hassan, 1999, 250). As male-centered and male-dominated Muslim societies [] keep women in physical, mental, and emotional confinement and deprive them of the opportunity to actualize their human potential, women have no other choice but to be more actively involved into the process of studying the Islamic theology. Hassan is extremely disturbed by the fact that only a handful of Muslim women are good connoisseurs of Islamic theology; the increased religious activity of Muslim women will provide the basis for combating brutality, female exploitation and the power of anti-women laws. However, it is not enough to make women more active; it is critical that religious women pay special attention to the three major theoretical issues in Islam. First, the Islamic theology of women should examine the issues of womens creation in Islam (Hassan, 1999, 254). Second, the female theology of Islam should examine the issue of womans guilt in the fall episode (Hassan, 1999, 257). There is still no definite answer to who should carry the major responsibility for a mans fall in paradise. Third, the Islamic theology of women should finally examine the primary purpose of a womans existence (Hassan, 1999, 261). The male Islamic community views a womans purpose in Islam as to be of use to men who are superior to the m (Hassan, 1999, 263). Women should be more active in studying the Islamic theology, to improve their social position within the Islamic religion. Veil (or hijab) remains the corner stone in the conflict between traditional Islam and westernization. By many, veil (hijab) is viewed as oppressive means of emphasizing womens inferior position in Islamic religion. In her work, Hassan avoids critical judgments, and tries to be objective. In her view, hijab (veiling) for women is a part of the reassertion of their traditional culture (Hassan, 2007, 242). In many aspects, Hassans views are similar to those Naheed Mustafa expressed in her article My Body is My Own Business: wearing hijab has given me freedom from constant attention to my physical self. Hassan and Mustafa are common in that hijab gives Muslim women more opportunities to work, to go outside, and to socialize. This knowledge provides a new vision of a woman in Islam, for whom veil is not an oppression but the instrument of freedom, and for whom the knowledge of Islamic theology is the direct pathway towards social equality with Muslim men. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hassan, R. Women In Islam. In Women in Religion, Fisher M.P. (eds)., 235-269. Pearson / Longman, 2007. Hassan, R. Feminism in Islam. In Feminism and World Religions, Sharma, A. & Young,K.K. (eds.), 249-278. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. Mustafa, N. My Body Is My Own Business. The Globe and Mail, 29 June 1993. Women and Islam an Example by Women and Islam The people on the earth are broadly divided into two categories of human beings, Male and Female. Female humans are also termed as women. The term woman, who is grammatically, plural form of the English word woman, is generally used for grownup or adults but sometimes this represents the whole female category irrespective of their age. Need essay sample on "Women and Islam" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Historically speaking, women always assumed a particular role in making and shaping of society. In hunter-gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherer of plant food, small animal foods, and learned to use dairy products, while men were suppose to hunt larger animals and provide security to the members of the group. In the recent history, the role and responsibility of women have gradually changed. In the middle class societies, women were primarily responsible for domestic tasks with prim focus on childcare and they did not get the chance to enter into employment for wage but for lower income generating societies, apart from the primary responsibilities, seeking employment out side the home for them become an economic compulsion. Accordingly we see that this is not only the social background or economic background, which have played theirs role in deciding the women position in their society but a very significant role have also been played by the religions in deciding the social consideration of the women belonging to that religion. Here I will primarily discuss about the women and the Islamic viewpoint about them. The teaching of Islam is based essentially on Koran, which is considered as Gods revelation and Hadeeth, which is regarded as the elaborations by Prophet Muhammad. The Koran provides that women and men are equal in the sight of God, in terms of their rights and responsibilities. The Koran states, Every soul will be (held) pledge for its deeds. (1) Women according to Koran, in terms of religious obligations, such as daily prayers, Fasting, Poor due, and pilgrimage are no different than men. But, the women are exempted from the daily prayer and from fasting during menstrual period and forty days after childbirth. She is also exempted from fasting during pregnancy and when she is nourishing and nursing her baby, if there is any threat to her health or her babys health. If the missed fasting is religiously obligatory (during the month of Ramadan), she can make up for the missed days, whenever she can. She does not have to make up for prayers missed for any of the above reasons. Although women can and did go into the mosque during the days of the prophet and there after the attendance at the Friday congregational prayers is optional for them, while it is mandatory for men (Friday). This is clearly a soft touch of the Islamic teachings for they are considerate of the fact that a woman may be nursing her baby or caring for him and thus may be unable to attend the mosque at the time of prayer. They also take into account the physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural female functions. Broadly speaking, Islam brought about far reaching reforms in respect of the condition and status of women. For the first time in the history of human civilization, the principle of equity between the sexes was recognized and practically carried into effect. Sexual relationship without obligation in the form of loose marriages was abolished and only a proper form of marriage was recognized and the same was standardized. Womens consent to the marriage was given central importance. Sense of chastity was introduced and developed both in men and women and un-chastity was subjected to strict moral and legal checks. Islam provides an efficient legal framework for the protection of her dignity and safeguards against her exploitation. Till her marriage, on the father has been cast the strict legal duty to look after her and meet all her requirements. The Islamic law vests in her all the rights due to her as an independent human being. She is entitled to inherit from her parents along with her brothers. On her marriage she does not loose her individuality. She does not cease to be an independent member of the society in her own rights and her personality does not merge into that of her husband. She can own property and dispose it of in any manner she chooses. She can sue and be sued in her own name. She becomes the absolute and exclusive owner of what she earns by her skill or whatever she gets through inheritance or gift from any source. She does not require to seek leave from her husband to dispose off her property in the manner she deems fit. All this is not by way of favor from the society, whi ch can be withdrawn at the whim of any person or any legislature at any time. It is all guaranteed by the Islamic law, which is permanent and beyond the modifying power of any authority of the earth. Marriage in Islam derives its legitimacy from the Shariat and it is treated as contract. There is no ban on widow remarriage and divorce is allowed. But in practice, the contract of marriage gives very unequal rights to man and women. Religion provides for free consent of both parties in the Nikah but in the practice, it is mere formality, as so far as girl is concerned. This is an example of the fact that the super structure of equality of sexes is granted without dismantling the infrastructure of inequality of the sexes in Islam. It confines a woman into immanence and asks her to perform an act of transcendence, which by all means remains immanence. Similarly widow remarriage and divorce are generally frowned upon, especially among middle and the upper classes, even though they are permissible in Islam. The right of repudiation of marriage contract is with the husband. Polygamy is permitted in Islam. A wife therefore, has a distinctly inferior status. Religion makes the husband the family head and expects the wife to obey and serve him. Maher is meant to be a security for the wife against the possibility of divorce at the husbands free will. It is doubtful, however, as to how many women are in a position to assert their claims of Maher in the event of a divorce or widowhood, particularly in the communities among whom, the marriage contract need not be in writing. Womens rights of inheritance, provided in Islam are significant, especially in view of the fact they were meant for a patrilineal social structure. Islam introduced share for wife, daughter, mother, sisters and grandmothers. The general rule being that the female was to inherit half of what the corresponding male would inherit. However, the womens right to hold or inherit property, is not often followed in practice. This is largely due to their seclusion, absence of education, and prevalence of customs and conventions. Two practices that have been most detrimental to the status of the women in Islam have been Talaq or unilateral divorce and seclusion of women. It is largely due to seclusion that has kept Muslim Women backward in respect of education, health, prevented their participation in economic and social fields and has been a hurdle in the way of realizing their civil rights. It has made them heavily dependent on men for the business of living and hence also for achieving any progress. For Mutahhari, Islam is not against the equality of men and women, but it does not agree with the identicalness of their rights (2). He thinks that If women wishes to acquire rights equal to the rights of men and happiness equal to the happiness of man, the only way to get that end is for her to forget about an identicalness of rights with men and have faith in rights suitable for herself. Only in this way can unity and real sincerity between men and women be achieved and only then will women obtain happiness equal to or better than mans. Men then, out of sincerity and without any derogatory thoughts, will be ready to concede to her equal and at times better rights than their own. About the point of actuality, he argues that Our point of view is that dissimilarity in the rights of man and woman should be observed to whatever extent nature has differently molded and created them. Which means to be a husband, in itself, that is, the fact of being husband, imposes certain obligations an d signifies certain rights, and to be a wife in itself imposes certain obligations and implies certain rights. With regard to divorce, in the eye of Islam, divorce is vehemently hated and detested. Here the man is given the prerogative to pronounce triple divorce- Talaq, Talaq, Talaq-to bring the contract of marriage to an end. The natural mechanism of marriage on which Islam has based its laws, is that the women should have a position of being loved and respected in the family order. Consequently, if, for some reason, the wife has fallen from this position and the warmth of the love of the husband for her has cooled down and he has lost his affection for her, the foundation and the main pillar of the family has destroyed. Mutahhari observes So whenever the fire of the love and affection of the husband is extinguished, the union of marriage, from the natural point of view, subsists no more. (3) Hence the Islamic viewpoint about the divorce is that the nature has deposited the key of the natural dissolution of marriage in the custody of man. In other words, it is man who by his own apathy and unfaithfulness towards his wife makes her cold and unfaithful. Conversely, if the difference begins on the side of the wife, it does not affect the affection of the man, rather, incidentally, it makes the affection more acute. Consequently the difference of the man leads to indifference on the both sides. In this way, in Islam, a Muslim has a genuine reason for divorce only if he or she become cruel, vindictive, abusive, unfaithful, neglectful, selfish, sexually abusive, tyrannical, perverted, and so on. In good Islamic practice, before divorce can be contemplated, all possible efforts should be made to solve a couples problem. After an intention of divorce is announced, there is a three months period during which more attempts are made at reconciliation. If by the end of each month, the couple has resumed sexual intimacy, the divorce should not proceed. The three-month rule ensures that a woman cannot remarry until three menstrual cycles have passed- so, if she happens to be pregnant, the child will be supported and paternity will not be in dispute. Regarding polygamy, the Koran endorses up to the limit of four wives per man. But it is ordained in the Koran that If you fear that you shall not be able to behave justly among your wives, do not have more than one woman as your wife. Sexual intimacy outside marriage is forbidden in Islam, including sex before marriage, adultery or homosexual relationship. However, within marriage, sexual intimacy should be raised from animal level to worship level so that each considers the happiness and satisfaction of the other, rather than mere self-gratification. On analyzing the political aspect of Islamic viewpoint on women, we find women equality with men during the Islamic civilization. But although not mentioned in the Koran, one Hadeeth of the Prophet is interpreted to make women ineligible for the position of head of state. As per the referred Hadeeth, a people will not prosper, if they let a woman be their leader. This limitation, however, has nothing to do with the dignity of woman or with her rights. It is rather related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-up of men and women. According to Islam, the head of the state is required to perform multiple functions, including leading the people in the prayers, especially on Fridays and festivities. He is continuously required to engage himself in the process of decision making related to the security and welfare of the subject. This demanding position or other similar situations is very inconsistent with the physiological and psychological make-up of the women in general. But these are the different arguments, which are given to defend the inconsistent viewpoint of Islam about Muslim Women. Summarizing the whole issue, this can be said that Islamic viewpoint about the women might be different but in the cultural practices followed by them make her status more vulnerable. Despite the fact that the Koran is addressed to all Muslims, and for the most part, we do not find any difference between men and women. Women have the right to divorce, to inherit property, to conduct business and to have access to knowledge, But in practice, in Riyadh, a woman is forbidden from driving a car. During the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, girls were forbidden from going to school. The veiling of Muslim women is still a very complex issue. Regardless of her skills or intelligence, she is expected to accept her man as his master. According to one verse of Koran, man can punish his wife physically, if her ill will is wrecking the marriage. Let us wish and hope that a Woman in Islam gets her due share in time to come. Works Cited Koran -74:38 Mutahhari, Murtada; Rights of Women in Islam / Tehran / World Organization of Islamic Studies, p/39 Mutahhari, Murtada; Rights of Women in Islam / Tehran / World Organization of Islamic Studies, p/128