Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Secret to Humor is Surprise in The Weather of New...

Critical Analysis Essay â€Å"The secret to humor is surprise-Aristotle.† The two stories Im going to talk about â€Å"The Weather of New England† by Mark Twain and â€Å"The Dog That Bit People† by James Thurber are both strange humorous essay with a twist. Both stories have a central conflict, in â€Å"The Dog That Bit People† a family is burden with a dog that bites everyone, including the narrator. â€Å"The Weather of New England† talks about the weather of the new colonies and how spontaneous they were and the different forms they came in. Both humorous authors use style, tone, and perspective as a technique to tell their story and conflicts. Mark Twain uses style in â€Å"The Weather of New England†, when he uses words like â€Å"sumptuous† and â€Å"Centennial† to describe whats going on in the story. The author refers to the weather as â€Å"sumptuous† saying that there are splendid and lavish varieties of the weather of New England that cause a stranger to admire and regret or pity the weather. He also says that â€Å"the brightest gems in the New England weather is the dazzling uncertainty.† The authors uses words like â€Å"dazzling† to show his style. His style is sarcastic because he makes the uncertainty of not knowing what the weathers going to be as a good thing when really the unexpected weather is causing problems. The author of The Dog That Bit People James Thurber on one hand uses hyperboles like Mark Twain ,but on the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Parable Of The Sower - 1217 Words

Film and novels cannot be a part of the dystopian genre without having certain characteristics. Among these characteristics Parable of the Sower displays the traits needed to create a dystopian novel. Parable of the Sower belongs in this genre because it illustrates a restrictment of independent thought, the natural world is distrusted, and citizens live in a dehumanized state. One of the common traits dystopian novels include is, information, independent thought, and freedom are restricted. In Parable of the Sower it is not easy to get information about what happens outside of the walls. The way most families get their information is by radio. When Lauren and the rest go on the road they no longer have information on what is going on in other cities or the dangers of fires ahead of the road. The restrictment of independent thought is not seen much outside of Laurens community, but it is heavily seen in her community. Lauren tried to say what she thought to Joanne thinking that she would understand and agree with her, but it did not work the way Lauren wanted it to. In her journal entry Lauren wrote â€Å"I felt on the verge of talking to her about things I hadn’t talked about before. I’d written about them. Sometimes I write to keep from going crazy. There’s a world of things I don’t feel free to talk to anyone about. But Joanne is a friend. She knows me better than most people, and she has a brain. Why not talk to her? Sooner or later, I have to talk to someone. †Show MoreRelatedThe Parable Of The Sower1062 Words   |  5 Pagesunderstand the nature and purpose of the parable, in order for understanding and interpreting Jesus’ parables. The parable of the sower is considered as the great watershed of all Jesus’ parables. I believe that the right way to express the continuity and the development of Jesus’ thoughts about the connection between the kingdom and himself is by understanding the parable of the Sower. The author in Kingdom, Grace, and Judgement describes the parable of the sower by breaking it into five different proposalsRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower753 Words   |  4 Pagespaper will be taken from Matthew 13: 3- 23 . Let’s summarize the parable for a clear understanding for the reader. Jesus began to discuss His discourse of the parable of the sower who sows seeds on different ground for it to grow and produce. Jesus cites three examples how the seeds were sown in this parable and how the ground responded. According to Dr. James Gibson defined a parable as â€Å"to place beside.† Jesus often used parables to teach mysteries to His disciples and others. Dr. Gibson refersRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower1570 Words   |  7 PagesSpring 2013 Earthseed: The Books of the Living The Parable of the Sower By Lauren Oya Olamina ; Lorem Ipsum Dolor Spring 2016 The Parable of the Sower Earthseed is a fictional religion based on the idea that â€Å"God is Change.† Created by Octavia Butler, this story is told by the main character Lauren Oya Olamina in both of her books: Parable of the Sower and Parable of the Talents. There was supposed to be a third book to this trilogy series, Parable of the Trickster, but Butler was unable to completeRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower1789 Words   |  8 Pagesthe author or of the intended audience or both.† The Parable of the Sower (Mark 4:1-12, NRSV) is written with the intent to teach a lesson to the reader. Jesus shares a parable with a large group of people and later explores this with his disciples. This passage gives the reader the chance to hear the parable and also its intended meaning. Whilst this story is popular in catholic teaching, it is not exclusive to Mark. The Parable of the Sower can also be found in Matthew 13:1-23, Mark 4:10-12 andRead MoreThe Parable of the Sower674 Words   |  3 PagesThe Parable of the Sower The Parables are a section of the Matthews Evangelium in the Christian Bible. It is a common inspiration and focus for interpretation or themes during sermon. The Parables consist of tales that Jesus is said to have been a crowd of people following him and they explained Goods word and moral by using ordinary events. Following each Parable is an interpretation of it –made to state what the parable actually wants to explain to us. The first of these parables is theRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower861 Words   |  4 PagesCultivate Your Mind In the Parable of the Sower, Jesus points out that it is only when the seed is sown in good soil that it brings forth an abundance. The soil / soul comparison makes clear what is often ignored about prayer: it is not the seed, but the condition of the soil (soul) that determines the size of the harvest. It is not by sowing more seeds, but by improving the soil, that we increase the quantity and improve the quality of the results. In the parable, the birds of judgment negateRead MoreParable of the Sower531 Words   |  3 Pagesplays a key role in this story and shows how being an individualistic society can be the downfall to the strongest country in the world. This essay will discuss the struggle of man versus man, man versus nature, and the authors intent in Parable of the Sower. Butler talks about many aspects of life and the struggle to survive, and this essay will explore three main ideas that occurred in this book. The struggle of man versus man occurs throughout the whole story. The book starts out thatRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower2295 Words   |  10 Pagesused parables to pass earthly stories with a heavenly meaning to the multitude. He used parables in His teachings to not only fulfill prophecy but also to enlighten the true hearted to challenge hardened hearts of the people (Matt. 13:34-35, KJV). Among His parables, the parable of the sower was the parable inclusive of other parables (soil grounds and the sower) making it one of the main parables of Christ. Four different soils were used to represent four different kinds of people and a sower wasRead MoreThe Parable Of The Sower Essay1796 Words   |  8 Pages The Parable of the Sower tells the story of several seeds, each of which had been placed into different conditions. The contrasting faith journeys of Nathan, Frank, and Ruth of the Drum family can each be connected to one such seed. Nathan, the seed in good soil, Frank, the s eed in rocky places, and Ruth, the seed among the thorns, were all tested by tragedy. In his book Ordinary Grace, William Kent Krueger uses the response of each person to prove that although extent of faith can vary greatlyRead MoreParable Of The Sower Essay902 Words   |  4 PagesSegregation Parable of the Sower hypothesizes around the ascent of a period of psychological oppression in America, a method of terrorism that inundates the quaint, generally more well off white-collar community. It additionally poses many dangers and consequences for those of wealthier classes. Parable of the Sower has is set in Los Angeles and California, in a near future in which human life is deteriorating and culture is plummeting to brutality. Almost every person in Parable of the Sower struggles

Challenges with an Ageing Population †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Challenges with an Ageing Population. Answer: Introduction The rapid increase in the ageing population has become a cause for concern for many nations that are presently grappling with such a situation. Many countries are having a large ageing population and this is invariably having a negative impact on their economy. An ageing population contributes to a decline in the working age population which leads to a shortage of qualified workers who can contribute to a nations growth and prosperity (Bloom, et al., 2015). It creates a rise in the healthcare costs as the demand for healthcare invariably rises with age thereby forcing the government to allocate and spend more money and resources on their public healthcare systems. Ageing population creates an increase in the dependency ratio as there is large elderly population which is dependent on the taxes paid by the smaller pool of workers for getting their pension benefits and other public funded facilities. This assignment will invariably discuss the rise in the ageing population in Japan and Singapore and how both the countries are trying to cope up with the challenges of managing the ageing population in their respective nations (Borji, 2016). The Demographic Changes There are three factors which essentially affect the size and age of the population in Asia. These are the witnessed trend of continuous baby boom, the rapid reduction in the male and female fertility rates and the decline in the mortality rates creates an increased pressure on the healthcare services of any country. In Singapore, the period of baby boom lasted nearly two decades from 1946 to 1965. The year 1965 is an important year for Singapore as the country became independent. The total yearly births remained 38,654 during the first year of baby boom and it steadily increased to 62,495 births in 1957. The number of births remained steady at around 60000 births until 1964 after which it steadily decreased to around 44,562 in 1969. After 1980, there was a marked increase in the number of live births and this trend continued till 1995. After 2000, the birth rate slowly decreased and this period after 2000 was marked by a low birth rate (Roy, 2014). The fertility rate in Singapore remained at high level during the period between 1947 and 1957. It was 6.5 during this period. The baby boom transformed into a baby bust due to the rapid fall in the fertility rates among the Singaporean population during the early 1980s. The period between the late 1960s and the early 1970s were market by a temperamen tal shift in how the people perceived family planning and birth control(Ferraro Shippee, 2009). Women had greater access to birth control techniques and the Government of Singapore introduced changes in their existing laws which went a long way in changing the perception and attitude of the general population towards womens role in the society (Roy, 2014). Improved life expectancy along with declining fertility in recent years has contributed to a large ageing population in Singapore. During the year 2000, the life expectancy stood at an all time high of 80.4 years. The rise in living standards and improving nutrition levels combined with better education and awareness contributed mainly towards the low mortality rates during the first half of the 20th century contributed largely to the ageing population in Singapore. Japans population has increased during the post war period from about 93.4 million in 1960 to around 128 million in 2010. This shows an increase of 37% in the overall population. However, the main cause of concern for Japan is that the number of persons below the age of 15 years has been witnessing a steady decline till the 1980s after which there was a rapid decline till the present moment. The population size of persons below 15 years of age was only 16.8 million in 2010. This statistics indicate that the proportion of children in the overall population has shrunk down considerably from 30% in 1960 to 13% in 2010. Contrastingly the proportion of elderly population has risen continuously from 1960 to 2010. The number of people above the age of 65 years was 5.4 million in 1960 and this was 29 million in 2010 recording an increase of almost five and a half times (Tsuya, 2014). This rapid pace of ageing population is attributed as a major factor for the problems associated with populat ion ageing which is being faced by Japan. In terms of fertility rate, there was a sharp decline in the fertility rate in the period after the Second World War. The Total fertility rate dropped down from 4.5 in 1947 to 2.0 in 1957. The fertility rate in Japan stabilised at the levels of 2.0 to 2.2 children per women till 1974 after which it recorded a decline again. The developments and advancements made in the fields of healthcare services in both Singapore and Japan have played a vital role in bring down the mortality rates in both the nations. It has played a major role in increasing the life expectancy of the people in both the countries which has invariably contributed to the present problems associated with an ageing population in both the nations (Tamiya, et al., 2011). The Policies The issue of the ageing population in Singapore has been on the national agenda since the 1980s and the Singaporean government has undertaken several high level committees to study the ageing trends in that country. Singapore is tackling the problem of ageing population with an inter-agency approach that takes into accounts inputs and feedbacks from the general population at the time of policy making. During the 1980s the government recognised the fact that the population was ageing rapid and thus they focused their efforts and attention on identifying and anticipating the needs of the elderly population (Goh, 2006). The Committee on the Problems of the Aged was formed in 1982 and was chaired by the Minister for Health and their main purpose was to study the impacts of an ageing population on the country and provide solutions to tackle the challenges. During the 1990s, an Inter-Ministerial Committee on the Ageing Population (IMC) was set up for creating a coordinated national response to the challenges which emerged from an ageing society. It aimed at facilitating a successful ageing process by showcasing a high degree of preparedness for the challenges and opportunities which emerged from an ageing population (Sanderson Scherbov, 2010). The Singaporean Government has introduced holistic and affordable healthcare and eldercare which emphasises on disease prevention and health promotion. The government promotes personal responsibility for healthcare by encouraging the elderly population to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle in their respective communities for as long as possible. The Singapore government provides lifelong financial planning for their citizens. Under Singapores Central Provident Fund (CPF) system, the elderly population is responsible for planning and saving which would help to ensure their financial security in the old age. The government of Singapore has ensured that older people are employed for as long as possible which helps in ensuring that the elderly population are mentally and physically fit by leading an active lifestyle by enabling them to integrate with the society in an effective manner (Goh, 2006) In Japan, the people above the age of 65 years presently comprise almost a quarter of the total Japanese population. This top heavy demographic aspect has created huge challenges for the Japanese government. In order to tackle this growing problem, the Japanese government is trying to implement innovative programs such as long term care and insurance to advanced robotics which would go a long way in helping Japan to mitigate the problems and challenges faced as a result of their ageing population. Japan is widely considered to be the oldest society on the planet and the worsening situation has compelled the Japanese government to take bold decisions to counter the challenges of an ageing population (Tsuya, 2014). In the year 2000, the Japanese government has launched a long term care insurance which aims to totally change and transform the manner in which healthcare services are presently being delivered to the Japanese population. For revitalising the Japanese economy, the Japanese Prime Minister Mr. Shinzo Abehas launched a new set of reforms which are dubbed Abenomics". It aims to increase the proportion of women in the workforce by further increasing and expanding the inexpensive day-care centres for children and reforming the corporate governance laws in Japan (Marlow, 2015). The Japanese government has chosen to supplement their national pension plans with the long-term-care insurance (LTCI) and this has result in the LTCI becoming one of the most generous long term care systems of the world as far as benefits and coverage are concerned. This has played a vital role in removing the anxiety and unpredictability associated with elderly care elsewhere. People are able to pay into the system while they are in their 40s and start obtaining the benefits once they reach the age of 65 years (Tamiya, et al., 2011). The LTCI system provides comprehensive coverage of upto $2,900 a month in services, as opposed to cash payment, and it does require "co-payments" from patients. The LTCI co-payments are capped or waived for patients coming from weak economic backgrounds. Japan is considered to be a global leader in advanced robotics and cutting edge technology. There is increasing research going on in Japan in order to ascertain whether the robots can replace the agein g workforce in the different industries of Japan (Marlow, 2015). In the year 2002, the governments of 159 nations took part in theMadrid International Plan of Action on Ageing (MIPAA) along with representatives from civil society organisations. This was the first global agreement which aimed to recognise the contribution made by the older people to the development of their respective societies. The countries participating in this meeting pledged to consider ageing into all their future social and economic development policies which also includes their poverty reduction programmes (World Health Day 2012: ageing and health, 2012). These would help them to reach their Millennium Development Goals in 2018. The Culture The culture of Singapore is extremely vibrant and it is considered to be a melting pot of different cultures. Looking at the cultural aspect of Singapore it can be safely stated that it is a combination of Asian and European cultures. The culture of Singapore is mainly influenced by Malay, South Asian (Indian), East Asian (Chinese) and Eurasian cultures and this is the main reason why Singapore is considered by many to be a country where the East meets West. The Japanese culture on the other hand has evolved greatly over the years due to its growing interaction with western cultures. The Japanese culture has come a long way since the J?mon period where there was no interaction with the foreign cultures to the modern day contemporary culture which is largely the result of the global influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Culture plays a very important role in determining the outcome of healthcare services. It shapes up the values and perceptions of the general population regarding health and well being and this can play a very important role in determining the health outcomes for the general population. The culture of a nation plays an essential role in determining their diets and food habits and this can have a detrimental impact on the overall health and well being of an individual. The doctor patient communication is another factor that is heavily influenced by the culture of an individual (Vilbig, 2017). The language and literacy barrier is largely influenced by the socio-cultural norms under which an individual grows up and this can play a very important role in determining the outcome of healthcare services. There is a growing need for culturally sensitive policies, solutions and recommendations in order to limit the impact of the ageing population. This would play a very important role in helping the ageing population to integrate with the mainstream society in an effective manner and this would eventually benefit the society as a whole because the young generation can learn from the experience and knowledge which is possessed by the elderly population. Conclusion This assignment has played an important role in helping us to understand the problems faced by Japan and Singapore as a result of their ageing population. We have also gained knowledge about the government policies and interventions which have been adopted by both the nations in order to tackle the problem of the ageing population. We have been able to understand the role of culture in determining the quality of healthcare support that is presently being provided to the ageing population in both the countries. The government of both the nations (Japan and Singapore) are playing a proactive role in tackling the challenges associated with an ageing population and these have played a vital role in helping them to effectively cater to the healthcare needs of their ageing population in an effective manner. Bibliography Bloom, D. E., Canning, D., Fink, G. (2010). Oxford review of economic policy. Implications of population ageing for economic growth , 583-612. Bloom, D. E., Chatterji, S., Kowal, P., Lloyd-Sherlock, P., McKee, M., Rechel, B., et al. (2015). The Lancet. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses , 649-657. Borji, H. (2016). 4 Global Economic Issues of an Aging Population. Retrieved September 27, 2017, from https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/011216/4-global-economic-issues-aging-population.asp: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/011216/4-global-economic-issues-aging-population.asp Campbell, N. C., Murray, E., Darbyshire, J., Emery, J., Farmer, A., Griffiths, F., et al. (2007). Designing and evaluating complex interventions to improve health care. BMJ: British Medical Journal , 455. Ferraro, K. F., Shippee, T. P. (2009). Aging and cumulative inequality: How does inequality get under the skin? The Gerontologist. Goh, H. (2006). Retrieved October 26, 2017, from Successful Ageing A Review of Singapore's Policy Approaches: www.cscollege.gov.sg. Available at: https://www.cscollege.gov.sg/Knowledge/Ethos/Issue%201%20Oct%202006/Pages/Successful-Ageing-A-Review-of-Singapores-Policy-Approaches.aspx Harding, A., Gupta, A. (2007). Modelling our future: Population ageing, social security and taxation. Elsevier. Lee, R. D., Mason, A. (2011). Population aging and the generational economy: A global perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing. Marlow, I. (2015). The Globe and Mail. Retrieved September 28, 2017, from Bold steps: Japans remedy for a rapidly aging society: https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/retirement/retire-planning/how-japan-is-coping-with-a-rapidly-aging-population/article27259703/ref=https://www.theglobeandmail.com Roy, S. (2014). Baby Boom Generation in Singapore and its Impact on Ageing. International Science Index . Sanderson, W. C., Scherbov, S. (2010). Remeasuring aging. Science. Tamiya, N., Noguchi, H., Nishi, A., Reich, M. R., Ikegami, N., Hashimoto, H., et al. (2011). Population ageing and wellbeing: lessons from Japan's long-term care insurance policy. The Lancet. Tsuya, N. (2014). The Impacts of Population Decline in Japan: Demographic Prospects and Policy Implications. AGE. World Health Day 2012: ageing and health. (2012). Retrieved September 29, 2017, from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/ageing/events/world-report-2015-launch/en/

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Women and Islam an Example by

Women and Islam In her work, Hassan speaks about the role women play in Islam. The author refers to the continuous misinterpretation of the Islamic provisions and traditions; as a result of this misinterpretation, a woman in Islam seems to play a role submissive to man. Negative ideas about women that have no base in the Quran have apparently become part of Muslim thinking by assimilation from surrounding cultures (Hassan, 2007, 243). In reality, many schools of Islamic law refute the idea of a woman being inferior to man. Islam teaches men to treat women with kindness and respect (Hassan, 2007, 243). Quran teaches the Muslim community to secure the safety rights of women (Hassan, 2007, 246). Special attention is paid to safety, if a woman is suspected of adultery: the fact of sexual relations will never be proven unless four witnesses can confirm it (Hassan, 2007, 248). Although Quran makes certain reference to disobedient wives, its initial aim is to provide women and men with equal rights to reac h heaven. A woman in marriage plays a special role of mans advisor and supporter (Hassan, 2007, 251). This is why in early Islamic history many Muslim women accompanied their husbands in battles. This is why early Islamic history has given birth to several significant female figures, among which Khadija, Aisha, and Fatima were the most prominent. Need essay sample on "Women and Islam" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed However, even in the light of these promising trends, Islam remains a predominantly male religion. There is as yet no possibility that women can hold positions of spiritual authority in mosques (Hassan, 2007, 258). Islamic traditions vary from country to country, and while some women are allowed to attend the shrines and to beg for spiritual intervention to solve their personal problems, the female majority is forbidden to even approach a saints tomb (Hassan, 2007, 258). Many Islamic communities openly express their negative attitudes towards westernization, thus adding to womens social burden in Islam. Women are still responsible for contraception in sexual relations with their husbands; some smaller communities were known for applying genital mutilation to girls (Hassan, 2007, 261). In many aspects, the Islamic norms which put women on equal terms with men remain unrecognized by the larger Islamic community. For centuries, the major Islamic provisions have been re-interpreted by men. This is why Hassan argues for the importance of studying primary Islamic norms by women (Hassan, 1999, 250). As male-centered and male-dominated Muslim societies [] keep women in physical, mental, and emotional confinement and deprive them of the opportunity to actualize their human potential, women have no other choice but to be more actively involved into the process of studying the Islamic theology. Hassan is extremely disturbed by the fact that only a handful of Muslim women are good connoisseurs of Islamic theology; the increased religious activity of Muslim women will provide the basis for combating brutality, female exploitation and the power of anti-women laws. However, it is not enough to make women more active; it is critical that religious women pay special attention to the three major theoretical issues in Islam. First, the Islamic theology of women should examine the issues of womens creation in Islam (Hassan, 1999, 254). Second, the female theology of Islam should examine the issue of womans guilt in the fall episode (Hassan, 1999, 257). There is still no definite answer to who should carry the major responsibility for a mans fall in paradise. Third, the Islamic theology of women should finally examine the primary purpose of a womans existence (Hassan, 1999, 261). The male Islamic community views a womans purpose in Islam as to be of use to men who are superior to the m (Hassan, 1999, 263). Women should be more active in studying the Islamic theology, to improve their social position within the Islamic religion. Veil (or hijab) remains the corner stone in the conflict between traditional Islam and westernization. By many, veil (hijab) is viewed as oppressive means of emphasizing womens inferior position in Islamic religion. In her work, Hassan avoids critical judgments, and tries to be objective. In her view, hijab (veiling) for women is a part of the reassertion of their traditional culture (Hassan, 2007, 242). In many aspects, Hassans views are similar to those Naheed Mustafa expressed in her article My Body is My Own Business: wearing hijab has given me freedom from constant attention to my physical self. Hassan and Mustafa are common in that hijab gives Muslim women more opportunities to work, to go outside, and to socialize. This knowledge provides a new vision of a woman in Islam, for whom veil is not an oppression but the instrument of freedom, and for whom the knowledge of Islamic theology is the direct pathway towards social equality with Muslim men. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hassan, R. Women In Islam. In Women in Religion, Fisher M.P. (eds)., 235-269. Pearson / Longman, 2007. Hassan, R. Feminism in Islam. In Feminism and World Religions, Sharma, A. & Young,K.K. (eds.), 249-278. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. Mustafa, N. My Body Is My Own Business. The Globe and Mail, 29 June 1993. Women and Islam an Example by Women and Islam The people on the earth are broadly divided into two categories of human beings, Male and Female. Female humans are also termed as women. The term woman, who is grammatically, plural form of the English word woman, is generally used for grownup or adults but sometimes this represents the whole female category irrespective of their age. Need essay sample on "Women and Islam" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Historically speaking, women always assumed a particular role in making and shaping of society. In hunter-gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherer of plant food, small animal foods, and learned to use dairy products, while men were suppose to hunt larger animals and provide security to the members of the group. In the recent history, the role and responsibility of women have gradually changed. In the middle class societies, women were primarily responsible for domestic tasks with prim focus on childcare and they did not get the chance to enter into employment for wage but for lower income generating societies, apart from the primary responsibilities, seeking employment out side the home for them become an economic compulsion. Accordingly we see that this is not only the social background or economic background, which have played theirs role in deciding the women position in their society but a very significant role have also been played by the religions in deciding the social consideration of the women belonging to that religion. Here I will primarily discuss about the women and the Islamic viewpoint about them. The teaching of Islam is based essentially on Koran, which is considered as Gods revelation and Hadeeth, which is regarded as the elaborations by Prophet Muhammad. The Koran provides that women and men are equal in the sight of God, in terms of their rights and responsibilities. The Koran states, Every soul will be (held) pledge for its deeds. (1) Women according to Koran, in terms of religious obligations, such as daily prayers, Fasting, Poor due, and pilgrimage are no different than men. But, the women are exempted from the daily prayer and from fasting during menstrual period and forty days after childbirth. She is also exempted from fasting during pregnancy and when she is nourishing and nursing her baby, if there is any threat to her health or her babys health. If the missed fasting is religiously obligatory (during the month of Ramadan), she can make up for the missed days, whenever she can. She does not have to make up for prayers missed for any of the above reasons. Although women can and did go into the mosque during the days of the prophet and there after the attendance at the Friday congregational prayers is optional for them, while it is mandatory for men (Friday). This is clearly a soft touch of the Islamic teachings for they are considerate of the fact that a woman may be nursing her baby or caring for him and thus may be unable to attend the mosque at the time of prayer. They also take into account the physiological and psychological changes associated with her natural female functions. Broadly speaking, Islam brought about far reaching reforms in respect of the condition and status of women. For the first time in the history of human civilization, the principle of equity between the sexes was recognized and practically carried into effect. Sexual relationship without obligation in the form of loose marriages was abolished and only a proper form of marriage was recognized and the same was standardized. Womens consent to the marriage was given central importance. Sense of chastity was introduced and developed both in men and women and un-chastity was subjected to strict moral and legal checks. Islam provides an efficient legal framework for the protection of her dignity and safeguards against her exploitation. Till her marriage, on the father has been cast the strict legal duty to look after her and meet all her requirements. The Islamic law vests in her all the rights due to her as an independent human being. She is entitled to inherit from her parents along with her brothers. On her marriage she does not loose her individuality. She does not cease to be an independent member of the society in her own rights and her personality does not merge into that of her husband. She can own property and dispose it of in any manner she chooses. She can sue and be sued in her own name. She becomes the absolute and exclusive owner of what she earns by her skill or whatever she gets through inheritance or gift from any source. She does not require to seek leave from her husband to dispose off her property in the manner she deems fit. All this is not by way of favor from the society, whi ch can be withdrawn at the whim of any person or any legislature at any time. It is all guaranteed by the Islamic law, which is permanent and beyond the modifying power of any authority of the earth. Marriage in Islam derives its legitimacy from the Shariat and it is treated as contract. There is no ban on widow remarriage and divorce is allowed. But in practice, the contract of marriage gives very unequal rights to man and women. Religion provides for free consent of both parties in the Nikah but in the practice, it is mere formality, as so far as girl is concerned. This is an example of the fact that the super structure of equality of sexes is granted without dismantling the infrastructure of inequality of the sexes in Islam. It confines a woman into immanence and asks her to perform an act of transcendence, which by all means remains immanence. Similarly widow remarriage and divorce are generally frowned upon, especially among middle and the upper classes, even though they are permissible in Islam. The right of repudiation of marriage contract is with the husband. Polygamy is permitted in Islam. A wife therefore, has a distinctly inferior status. Religion makes the husband the family head and expects the wife to obey and serve him. Maher is meant to be a security for the wife against the possibility of divorce at the husbands free will. It is doubtful, however, as to how many women are in a position to assert their claims of Maher in the event of a divorce or widowhood, particularly in the communities among whom, the marriage contract need not be in writing. Womens rights of inheritance, provided in Islam are significant, especially in view of the fact they were meant for a patrilineal social structure. Islam introduced share for wife, daughter, mother, sisters and grandmothers. The general rule being that the female was to inherit half of what the corresponding male would inherit. However, the womens right to hold or inherit property, is not often followed in practice. This is largely due to their seclusion, absence of education, and prevalence of customs and conventions. Two practices that have been most detrimental to the status of the women in Islam have been Talaq or unilateral divorce and seclusion of women. It is largely due to seclusion that has kept Muslim Women backward in respect of education, health, prevented their participation in economic and social fields and has been a hurdle in the way of realizing their civil rights. It has made them heavily dependent on men for the business of living and hence also for achieving any progress. For Mutahhari, Islam is not against the equality of men and women, but it does not agree with the identicalness of their rights (2). He thinks that If women wishes to acquire rights equal to the rights of men and happiness equal to the happiness of man, the only way to get that end is for her to forget about an identicalness of rights with men and have faith in rights suitable for herself. Only in this way can unity and real sincerity between men and women be achieved and only then will women obtain happiness equal to or better than mans. Men then, out of sincerity and without any derogatory thoughts, will be ready to concede to her equal and at times better rights than their own. About the point of actuality, he argues that Our point of view is that dissimilarity in the rights of man and woman should be observed to whatever extent nature has differently molded and created them. Which means to be a husband, in itself, that is, the fact of being husband, imposes certain obligations an d signifies certain rights, and to be a wife in itself imposes certain obligations and implies certain rights. With regard to divorce, in the eye of Islam, divorce is vehemently hated and detested. Here the man is given the prerogative to pronounce triple divorce- Talaq, Talaq, Talaq-to bring the contract of marriage to an end. The natural mechanism of marriage on which Islam has based its laws, is that the women should have a position of being loved and respected in the family order. Consequently, if, for some reason, the wife has fallen from this position and the warmth of the love of the husband for her has cooled down and he has lost his affection for her, the foundation and the main pillar of the family has destroyed. Mutahhari observes So whenever the fire of the love and affection of the husband is extinguished, the union of marriage, from the natural point of view, subsists no more. (3) Hence the Islamic viewpoint about the divorce is that the nature has deposited the key of the natural dissolution of marriage in the custody of man. In other words, it is man who by his own apathy and unfaithfulness towards his wife makes her cold and unfaithful. Conversely, if the difference begins on the side of the wife, it does not affect the affection of the man, rather, incidentally, it makes the affection more acute. Consequently the difference of the man leads to indifference on the both sides. In this way, in Islam, a Muslim has a genuine reason for divorce only if he or she become cruel, vindictive, abusive, unfaithful, neglectful, selfish, sexually abusive, tyrannical, perverted, and so on. In good Islamic practice, before divorce can be contemplated, all possible efforts should be made to solve a couples problem. After an intention of divorce is announced, there is a three months period during which more attempts are made at reconciliation. If by the end of each month, the couple has resumed sexual intimacy, the divorce should not proceed. The three-month rule ensures that a woman cannot remarry until three menstrual cycles have passed- so, if she happens to be pregnant, the child will be supported and paternity will not be in dispute. Regarding polygamy, the Koran endorses up to the limit of four wives per man. But it is ordained in the Koran that If you fear that you shall not be able to behave justly among your wives, do not have more than one woman as your wife. Sexual intimacy outside marriage is forbidden in Islam, including sex before marriage, adultery or homosexual relationship. However, within marriage, sexual intimacy should be raised from animal level to worship level so that each considers the happiness and satisfaction of the other, rather than mere self-gratification. On analyzing the political aspect of Islamic viewpoint on women, we find women equality with men during the Islamic civilization. But although not mentioned in the Koran, one Hadeeth of the Prophet is interpreted to make women ineligible for the position of head of state. As per the referred Hadeeth, a people will not prosper, if they let a woman be their leader. This limitation, however, has nothing to do with the dignity of woman or with her rights. It is rather related to the natural differences in the biological and psychological make-up of men and women. According to Islam, the head of the state is required to perform multiple functions, including leading the people in the prayers, especially on Fridays and festivities. He is continuously required to engage himself in the process of decision making related to the security and welfare of the subject. This demanding position or other similar situations is very inconsistent with the physiological and psychological make-up of the women in general. But these are the different arguments, which are given to defend the inconsistent viewpoint of Islam about Muslim Women. Summarizing the whole issue, this can be said that Islamic viewpoint about the women might be different but in the cultural practices followed by them make her status more vulnerable. Despite the fact that the Koran is addressed to all Muslims, and for the most part, we do not find any difference between men and women. Women have the right to divorce, to inherit property, to conduct business and to have access to knowledge, But in practice, in Riyadh, a woman is forbidden from driving a car. During the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, girls were forbidden from going to school. The veiling of Muslim women is still a very complex issue. Regardless of her skills or intelligence, she is expected to accept her man as his master. According to one verse of Koran, man can punish his wife physically, if her ill will is wrecking the marriage. Let us wish and hope that a Woman in Islam gets her due share in time to come. Works Cited Koran -74:38 Mutahhari, Murtada; Rights of Women in Islam / Tehran / World Organization of Islamic Studies, p/39 Mutahhari, Murtada; Rights of Women in Islam / Tehran / World Organization of Islamic Studies, p/128

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Coca Colas Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador

Coca Colas Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador Introduction According to the Word Bank, about 1.35 billion people in the world today live below the international poverty line, which is set at $1.25 per day. In addition, it is estimated that the recent global financial and economic recession increased this number by 64 million people.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More What this means is that a significant number of people in the world today live under extreme poverty (Raman 103). As a result of this, it is important to encourage investment in the private sector. Investment in the private sector is important considering the fact that the ability of governments to foster development and provide aid is limited. Right now, the government is under a lot of pressure to provide the citizens with basic infrastructure using the meager resources. The resources are overstretc hed, meaning that the government needs help from the private sector. Investors in the private sector will provide the citizens with, among others, employment and infrastructure. For more than three decades, private corporations around the world have emerged as essential pillars as far as economic development is concerned. The private corporations have created job opportunities and other benefits in the society, contributing significantly to the reduction of poverty in the world (Walsh and Dowding 106). There are debates revolving around the impact of private investors on the global economy. Analysts are especially concerned with the impacts of these organizations on the economy of the developing countries. The debates notwithstanding, it is important to note that private corporations have significantly improved the economy as far as the developing nations are concerned.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The organizations have improved the business environment in these countries, in addition to providing the citizens with employment and other social amenities. Private organizations are aware of their impacts on the economy of the developing nations. They are aware of the fact that their operations affect the life of individuals in the community within which they are operating. As a result of this, the organizations recognize that their success or failure impacts on the community they are operating from. It is as a result of this realization that such companies have taken the initiative to transfer skills and knowledge from the developed world to the third world economies (Stanford 54). The current paper is written against this backdrop. In this paper, the author focuses on the operations of a multinational company with significant impacts on the regional and global economy. The companies selected for this analysis are Coca Cola and SABM iller. In this report, the author focuses on the business policy adopted by the Coca Cola Company and SABMiller. In addition, the author critically analyzes how the two companies have assisted the government in reducing levels of poverty in the country. The report is a case study of the operation of the two companies in two developing countries. The two countries are El Salvador and Zambia. The impacts of the two companies on these two economies are critically analyzed. Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador Zambia: Background Information In spite of the fact that Zambia has recorded a positive economic growth in the past five years, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The country attained independence in 1964. Immediately after independence, the country had the potential to emerge as one of the leading economies in Africa.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Sa lvador specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, the economy of the country declined sharply in the 1990s. Analysts blame the economic decline in the country on corruption. Corruption increased immediately after independence, and it persisted into the 1990s. The country’s economy started to recover in 2003. For the next five years, the country recorded an average of 5% in economic growth. The positive growth is largely attributed to the establishment of a favorable environment, which was conducive to investment. The country attracted investments from other nations, both within and outside Africa. The boom in copper mining is another reason why the country recorded a positive economic growth. Other factors leading to this growth post- 2003 include low inflation rates and improved political stability. In 2005, the country was relieved of most of its foreign debt. To this end, the country received a 4 billion USD debt relief. In 2008, th e price of copper in the international market plummeted, which affected the economy of this country negatively. The decline in the price of copper on the global market was brought about by the recent economic recession. The economy of the country revived in 2009 when the effects of the economic recession on the global economy tapered off. Since then, the country’s economy has continued to grow at an average rate of 6.3 percent per annum. However, in spite of this impressive economic growth, about 64% of the population in the country lived below the poverty line by the end of 2006. The current macroeconomic outlook in Zambia is positive. However, there are various factors that continue to negatively affect economic development. For example, more than 80% of the nation’s working population is involved in agriculture (Sherelle 38).Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More El Salvador: Background Information Currently, El Salvador is recovering from the effects of ten years of civil war. It is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. A series of natural disasters, coupled with the plummeting prices of coffee in the world market, have worsened the situation. The economy of the country recorded a steady positive growth between 1996 and 2006. The economic growth was especially significant after dollarization in 2001. According to Mexico Food (71), dollarization has increased the cost of living. In addition, dollarization has reduced interest rates in the country. In spite of these positive impacts, dollarization has not significantly reduced poverty levels in the country. The country has experienced labor shortages in the recent past as a result of migrations. Most of the citizens have migrated into the United States of America and into other western nations. The effects of poverty in the country vary from one group to the other. For example, and a ccording to Mexico Food (72), poverty levels are disproportionately higher among women and farm workers compared to the rest of the population. After the civil war, the country was faced with additional challenges, including violence and crime. Rate of crime has increased as a result of increased economic inequalities and pervasive poverty. Other factors attributed to the rise in crime include increased access to illicit firearms, underemployment, and unemployment. All these factors have negatively affected economic development in the country (Mexico Food 71). The success of efforts made by the government and other stakeholders to revive the economy is hindered by these factors. Coca Cola- SABMiller Value Chain: Background Information Coca Cola is one of the most popular multinational corporations in the world. It has established local operations in various countries around the world. The bottling of Coca Cola products is carried out by local companies, which are usually under the m anagement of local investors. Since the company was started in 1852, it has developed more than 500 still and sparkling brands of soft drinks. In addition to this, the company has operations in more than 200 countries around the world. In these countries, the country works in collaboration with more than three hundred bottling partners. Coca Cola manufactures various products. The products include, among others, syrups, beverage bases, and concentrates. The manufactured products are then sold to the bottling companies (DATAMONITOR 2). The company has operations in El Salvador and Zambia. The bottling operations in El Salvador and Zambia are carried out by SABMiller. In both countries, Coca cola has very few employees. Majority of employees are drawn from the local population. The few employees shipped in by the company are mainly tasked with the responsibility of providing technical and marketing advice to the local operators (Market Watch 22). In spite of the fact that El Salvador is geographically small, it is an important market for Coca Cola products in the region. On the other hand, Zambia medium sized as far as physical boundaries are concerned. As a result of this, Zambia is one of the top twenty markets for Coca Cola products in Africa (Sherelle 39). It is a fact beyond doubt that competition is stiff in the two markets. However, Coca Cola has countered this by developing an elaborate business policy. Coca Cola Company’s business policy is aimed at promoting continual growth in El Salvador and Zambia. Coca Cola Company controls the largest market share in both countries compared to the competitors. For instance, in the category of sparkling beverages, Coca Cola accounts for 51% of the market share in El Salvador and 73% in Zambia (Dibadj and Powers 111). In 2009, the profits of Coca Cola in Zambia declined significantly. The decline was attributed to the company’s heavy investment in manufacturing glass bottles. The cost of manufacturing the bottles was very high as a result of decreased supply. The revenues generated by the company from its operations in El Salvador have recorded a consistent positive growth in the past five years. It is a fact that the prices of the company’s products in El Salvador are significantly lower compared to those in Zambia. However, the company has managed to increase the revenues in this country by increasing the sales volumes (Madhavan 35). Coca Cola’s Business Policy in Zambia and El Salvador: Macroeconomics Job Creation As already indicated earlier in this paper, the number of individuals employed directly by Coca cola and SABMiller in these countries is very small. However, the value chain resulting from the operations of the two companies in the two countries employs a large number of people. For example, it is estimated that more than 3,810 jobs are created by the value chain in Zambia. The implication here is that one direct job from the Coca Cola-SABMiller value s ystem generates 10 other jobs in the Zambian economy. The value chain is responsible for more than 4,300 formal jobs in El Salvador, which translates to more than 1% of all formal jobs in the country. The implication here is that for every direct job created by the Coca Cola- SABMiller value system, there are three formal jobs created in the El Salvador economy. Most of the formal jobs linked to the Coca Cola- SABMiller value chain in the two countries are created in sales, distribution, bottling, and non- farm supplies’ sectors. In addition to the formal jobs, the value chain in the two countries has created a significant number of informal jobs. The informal jobs are found in the retailing of products and harvesting of sugar cane sectors. The value chain system has created more than 65,000 retail outlets in El Salvador and more than 26,000 retail outlets in Zambia (Nevin 44). Revenue Distribution The revenue generated from the sale of products manufactured by this company i s shared among all the partners in the value chain. In El Salvador, each 12 ounce bottle is sold at 4.25 USD. In 2010, the cost of a bottle was 62% of the selling price. The recommended price of the same bottle in Zambia is 5.04 USD. In 2010, the cost of one bottle was 76% of the selling price. Each value chain partner receives a profit that is pegged on sales volume and the cost structure. In 2009, the sugar farmer in El Salvador received 2.2% of the profits. The retailer and the distributor in the country received 35.5% and 56% of the profits respectively. There are variations in cost structures and the types of business conducted by the company in the two countries. As a result of this, revenue distribution in the two countries is significantly different (Sellers 141). Tax Contributions The revenue realized by the government in the two countries as a result of taxes imposed on the two companies varies. The revenue largely depends on the taxation systems adopted by specific countr ies. The total revenue in terms of taxes collected by the government in El Salvador from the operations of the two companies is significant. In the past five years, the government has collected approximately 51 million USD from the two companies in terms of taxes. In Zambia, the system’s tax contribution in the past five years is approximately 53.5 USD (Walsh and Dowding 109). Sourcing suppliers The Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain extends beyond the borders of the two countries. In 2010, the total amount that was spent on procurement in Zambia was 26 million USD. Seventy five percent of the amount was used in purchasing inputs from the region or from other countries in the world. In El Salvador, 73 million USD was used to procure inputs. Sixty four percent of the money was used in buying inputs from other countries in the world. Supplies are mainly sourced from Central America in the case of El Salvador and from South Africa in the case of Zambia. In attempts to spur the grow th of the local economies, SABMiller and Coca Cola endeavor to source supplies locally in both countries. However, most countries in the developing world are not in a position to provide most of the inputs required for the smooth running of the two companies. One explanation for this is the limited capacity of industries in these economies. The main factors taken into consideration by the two companies when purchasing supplies are quality, availability, and price. In many cases, local suppliers lack the technical ability and capacity to meet the system’s demand. In addition, the business policies adopted by SABMiller and Coca Cola with regard to environmental and labor standards are quite stringent. As a result, most companies in the developing economies lose the opportunity to partner with Coca Cola (Madhavan 45). Livelihoods Informal and Formal Sectors Just like in most other developing nations, the jobs created by the Coca Cola- SABMiller value chain in El Salvador and Zam bia are mainly in the informal sector as opposed in the formal sector. In Zambia, the informal sector accounts for about 90% of the nation’s economy. In El Salvador, the informal sector is responsible for more than 60% of the economy. Informal workers toil in the sugarcane fields, as well as in distribution and retailing channels. Although the jobs in the two countries are not regulated, they are important for the survival of the poor in the two nations. The livelihood and job security of workers in the two nations depend on whether they are formally or informally employed. The individuals working in the formal sector are entitled to social welfare. In addition, they can effectively negotiate with the employer. In contrast, their counterparts in the informal sector lack such rights. The individuals engaged in the informal sector are forced to endure unpleasant working conditions. The lack social security and are disproportionately affected by fluctuations in the market. Most people lack the opportunity to engage in formal work. As a result, they have no option but to stick to the informal sector (Regassa and Corradino 107). Benefits, Living Wages, and Minimum Wages In El Salvador, the employees receiving the highest pay in the Coca Cola- SABMiller system are in formal employment. The employees include those engaged in the sugar mills, bottling company, and distribution outlets. The purchasing power of the formal employees is very high compared to that of the informal employees. In addition, those who own retail shops have a higher income than those working in the sugarcane fields. The income of the latter is slightly above the minimum wage. In Zambia, formal employees in the Coca Cola-SABMiller system receive salaries that are above the average wage set in the country. The employees of Zambia Breweries receive the very high salaries compared to the rest (Sherelle 39). Capacity Building and Training Both companies have invested heavily in efforts to impr ove the capacity, skills, and knowledge of business partners in the value chain. The efforts include, among others, providing sugar producers with credit programs and technical assistance. For instance, SABMiller, under Industrias La Constancia (ILC), invested 800,000 USD in the training of workers in 2011 alone. The objective of this investment was to improve the capacity of the employees, as well as help them to advance their careers. On the other hand, Zambia Breweries spends about 95,000 USD each year to train employees. Zambia Breweries’ sales representatives are encouraged to mentor retailers and assist them gain skills necessary for business development (Raman 112). Empowerment According to Nevin (47), it is hard to quantify empowerment. However, it is one of the most important aspects of corporations investing in developing and transitional economies. Nevin (47) notes that empowerment among employees is evaluated by the degree to which they are capable of coming toget her to make collective bargains. In addition, empowerment among employees is determined by their effectiveness in using channels of communication to receive audience. Empowering employees in the developing world is very important. It ensures that they benefit from economic growth brought about by increased investment. When people are empowered, they become assets to the company. They protect the business against potential conflicts and emerging tensions. In addition, they provide the company with insights that help in product innovation and in improving production processes (Dibadj and Powers 134). Workers in the Informal Sector The capacity of employees in the informal sector to come together and agitate for the changes they need in practices and policies is very limited. The limited capacity is observed among independent retailers, distributors, and sugarcane harvesters in the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain. The individuals in these sectors are incapable of organizing themselves. In most cases, they are incapable of influencing business policies in the company or in the government. In Zambia, the National Association of Marketers is charged with the responsibility of communicating with the relevant stakeholders on such issues as marketplace amenities, local authorities’ fees, and licensing. However, the number of informal employees joining this organization is very small (Sherelle 41). Price Negotiations In most cases, sugar producers are incapable of determining the price of the commodity. Regulatory restrictions, such as quotas, make it very difficult to include farmers in price negotiations. The difficulty is observed in both El Salvador and Zambia. Despite the fact that the costs of inputs increase on a regular basis, the farmers are not in a position to negotiate with the millers. In both countries, there are organizations representing the interests of producers. However, small-scale producers remain unrepresented (Sellers 140). Stability and Se curity Sugarcane Harvesting Harvesting sugarcane is a very rigorous process. Laborers working in the fields have suffered from such injuries as poisoning and burns. Poor wages and lack of access to basic amenities and medical services are cited as some of the main factors exposing workers to such dangers (Walsh and Dowding 110). Crime The level of crime in El Salvador has remained very high since the civil war. Partners in the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain, including distributors, suppliers, and sugarcane producers, report cases of vandalism, extortion, and muggings on a regular basis. For example, the area within which ILC is located is regarded as a crime zone. Consequently, the company has put in place round-the-clock security programs to enhance the safety of the members of staff. Additionally, ILC came up with a program to train young men who were involved in crime in the past. They are trained on how they can start small businesses to improve their life. Leaders in Nejapa, w here ILC is located, have pointed out that poverty is the main reason why rate of crime is very high in the town. Owners of distribution businesses are afraid of expanding their businesses because of the high levels of organized crime (Regassa and Corradino 109). Dangerous Roads The condition of the roads in Zambia is quite poor. The poor conditions of the roads are a threat to the safety of truck drivers, who work for long hours (Sherelle 42). Women Participation and Gender Diversity Coca Cola and SABMiller promote the participation of women and minorities in the labor market in both countries. In the developing world, women are disadvantaged, especially with respect to access to healthcare, employment, and education. They are denied basic rights because of culturally-determined gender roles in the community. Their opinion does not count in the decision making process, and they are especially prone to violence (Market Watch 23). Women and SABMiller In both countries, formal jobs ar e largely dominated by men compared to women. The company has a strong policy that discourages discrimination on the basis of gender. However, most of the work in the bottling company requires physical strength. As a result, it is considered as a man’s job. In addition, insecurity has contributed to the underrepresentation of women in the value chain. The entire Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain is dominated by male workers. There are various factors responsible for this underrepresentation, including insecurity (Mexico Food 73). Women in Distribution In most cases, women work together with their husbands in retail and distribution outlets. The number of female business owners in the two countries is very small. For instance, the two largest distribution outlets in Zambia are owned by couples. Stanford (54) notes that women in Zambia are concerned about gender discrimination with regard to access to business growth and career advancement opportunities. Distribution in both coun tries is characterized by insecurities, which discourage women from owning such businesses. In both countries, a significant number of women own and operate small retail outlets. Most outlets are close to their homes. As a result, they work and take care of their families at the same time. Seventy six percent of retail outlet owners in El Salvador are women. In Zambia, 35% of the outlets are either owned or managed by a woman. Zambia Breweries and ILC train small scale retailers. However, women retailers in Zambia face various challenges accessing credit services. As a result, their capacity to grow is very limited. In El Salvador, the situation is significantly different from Zambia. Most of the women interviewed in one study pointed out that they accessed credit facilities with the same ease as male retailers (Regassa and Corradino 107). Sustainability and the Environment Both companies have demonstrated their commitment to environmental and social sustainability. Both of them hav e elaborate corporate social responsibility (CSR) systems. They are independently evaluated each year (DATAMONITOR 8). Depending on their supply chain and business operations, multinationals determine access to quality water among members of the community. Companies operating in close proximity to local communities give back to the society by sponsoring clean water initiatives and ensuring that they treat their wastewater. In this regard, businesses should ensure that their operations do not interfere with the ability of the locals to access quality water. Coca Cola Company and SABMiller are registered members of CEO Water Mandate (CWM). According to the stipulations of CWM, member companies are committed to strengthening water sustainability practices and policies (Market Watch 25). In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly pointed out that human beings have a right to clean water. The Assembly encouraged countries and multinationals to transfer technology, build capacity, and provide necessary resources to third world countries to assist them provide affordable, safe, accessible, and clean drinking water to their populations. During the convention, The Assembly averred that 900 million people in the world lacked access to clean and safe water (Walsh and Dowding 113). Just like in the developed world, the agricultural sector consumes more water in third world countries compared to other sectors. Water is the major component of the products manufactured by Coca cola. In addition, water is used as a coolant for machines. Other areas where water is used include in washing facilities and in the manufacturing processes. The value chain significantly affects the farms in the third world. In Zambia, farmers use a lot of water to wash sugarcane after harvesting. However, the use of water during harvesting in El Salvador is less compared to Zambia. The major reason for this is that it is usually wet during harvesting in El Salvador (Dibadj and Powers 145). Coc a Cola is a registered member of Bonsucro, which was established to limit the negative impacts of sugarcane farming and processing. As a member of this organization, Coca Cola encourages sugarcane producers to use environment-friendly practices, such as drip irrigation. The reduction of negative effects on the environment effects is appraised by independent evaluators. Currently, Coca Cola is working with producers in Zambia and in El Salvador to design pilot projects that will benefit the environment and the producers (Nevin 45). In the two countries, the Coca Cola-SABMiller value chain system is located close to sources of water. The same water is used in other industrial, agricultural, and domestic processes. The main issue in Zambia is access to water. On the other hand, the main issue in El Salvador is availability of water. Managers in the bottling plants engage members of the community by showing them how to use water to benefit everyone. In addition, they train them on how t o use water with minimal negative effects on the environment. Zambia Breweries and ILC observe the requirements of the water stewardship committee in Coca cola (Raman 103). SABMiller ‘Water Dialogues’ One of the major plants operated by Zambia Breweries is located near residential areas. The plant supplies clean water to the residents of two nearby towns. Residents of another town use water from an adjacent spring, which is also used by the plant. The plant has provided the community with several standpipes of clean water for free. In exchange, the community protects the plant’s pipes from vandals. One of the major plants operated by ILC, as well as residents of the surrounding community, uses water from the San Antonio River. ILC is treats all wastewater before it is discharging into the river, but other industries in the area do not. For some time, the community assumed that ILC was among the industries releasing untreated water into the river. ILC, together wi th the local authority, informed the community that wastewater from the plant was treated. The company entered into discussions with the community on what should be done to deal with the pollution caused by the other industries. The other industries have started treating their waste water. They are now working together with members of the community to conserve the environment (Raman 110). Packaging and Recycling Landfill waste is one of the most challenging waste management issues in the developing world. Contaminants from the landfills leak and contaminate groundwater, endangering the health of members of the surrounding communities. SABMiller has initiated a recycling program in both countries. 70% of all Coca Cola products in Zambia are sold in returnable bottles, with the rest sold either in plastic bottles or in aluminum cans. The use of returnable bottles is eco-friendly because they are returned to the company, washed, and reused. Coca Cola and SABMiller had proposed a progra m to recycle aluminum cans and plastic bottles. However, due to the limitations of the Zambian recycling industries, the program has not taken off. In El Salvador, 52% of the products are sold in plastic bottles, 35% in returnable bottles, and 9% in cans. The recycling plants operated by ILC are very efficient, but they were adversely affected by the economic recession. As a result, some of them closed down (Sellers 144). Products and Marketing Beverage companies are tasked with the responsibility of making sure their products are safe for consumption. The companies should realize that some people in the society may be negatively affected by their products. In the developing world, these companies should ensure that their message is presented in a way understandable to consumers (DATAMONITOR 7). Product Portfolio The company’s product portfolio in the two countries is fairly limited. Most people in the countries consume sparkling beverages. Sales of juice in El Salvador have continued to rise in the past two years. The company has more than 500 brands and more than 3,300 products (Market Watch 25). Consumer Perceptions and Marketing Coca Cola has spent over 5 million USD in marketing its products in El Salvador. The brand is associated with success and inspiration in the two countries. The products are integral parts of family and cultural celebrations. Fanta is the most popular product among children in the two countries. The business policy adopted by Coca Cola includes a Global Responsible Marketing Policy (GRMP). The policy discourages the marketing of the company’s products to children aged less than twelve years (DATAMONITOR 9). Nutritional Labeling Under GRMP, Coca Cola committed to display nutritional labels on all its products by the end of 2010. The products sold in returnable bottles in both countries did not have the labels as of 2009. The company is reluctant to provide such information on returnable bottles because it will force it to replace all bottles that are currently in circulation. In 2011, the company established a telephone number that consumers could call and get such information. Consumers in both countries point out that they do not comprehend the information on the cans and plastic bottles. In addition, they do not think that the company should provide such information on returnable bottles (Madhavan 41). Under GRMP, the company commits to measure and monitor the degree to which the policy is adhered to. In addition, it has come up with a Review Process to make sure that the policy is fully implemented. The findings made are documented in the CSR report at the end of every year. The International Food and Beverage Alliance conducted an independent audit and found that Coca Cola had complied with the provisions of GRMP. The level of compliance was more than 96% for television adverts and 100% for print and online adverts (Company Spotlight, 24-26). Conclusion Coca Cola operates in more than 200 cou ntries in the world. In most of its operations in the developing nations, the company has streamlined its value chain to ensure it remains profitable. In addition, streamlining the value chain helps in protecting the environment, improving welfare of the employees, and improving the quality of products. The company has achieved this through a diverse business policy. The policy addresses the role of the company in the countries’ macroeconomics, livelihood of employees, worker empowerment, job security, participation of women in the labor market, marketing of products, and protection of environment. DATAMONITOR. â€Å"The Coca-Cola Company: Coca-Cola Company SWOT Analysis.† DATAMONITOR 20 June 2011: 1-9. Print. Dibadj, Ali, and Steve Powers. U.S. Beverages Snacks: Opportunity Outweighs Risk. Black Book 2.3 (2011): 13-24. Madhavan, Ananya. CSR at Coca-Cola. Vikalpa: The Journal for Decision Makers 37.2 (2012): 34-51. Market Watch. Company Spotlight: The Coca-Cola Compa ny. Marketwatch Drinks 4.8 (2012): 22-28. Print. Mexico Food. Drink. Mexico Food Drink Report 1.1 (2012): 71-85. Print. Nevin, Tom. Coca-Cola: 125 Years of Making Friends. African Business 381 (2011): 44-45. Raman, Ravi. Community–Coca-Cola Interface: Political-Anthropological Concerns on Corporate Social Responsibility. Social Analysis 51.3 (2012): 103-120. Regassa, Hailu, and Laurie Corradino. Determining the Value of the Coca Cola Company A Case Analysis. Journal of The International Academy For Case Studies 17.7 (2011): 105-110. Sellers, Patricia. The New Coke. Fortune 165.7 (2012): 138-144. Sherelle, Jacobs. Major Brands in Africa. African Business 389 (2012): 38-42. Stanford, Duane. Cokes Last Round. Bloomberg Businessweek 4202 (2010): 54-61. Walsh, Heather, and Timothy Dowding. Sustainability and the Coca-Cola Company: The Global Water Crisis and Coca-Colas Business Case for Water Stewardship. International Journal Of Business Insights Transformation 4.5 (2012): 106 -118.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Charles Dickens Essay Example for Free (#3)

Charles Dickens Essay Essay Topic: Literature , Charles Dickens In the first chapter he uses many cold, harsh adjectives to reinforce his description of Scrooge, â€Å"wrenching, grasping, clutching†, and this helps to give the reader a very negative attitude towards him. This way of writing, using words which associate to the mood Dickens wants to put across, is very unusual and I think that people reading the book find this stimulating and exciting. We can vividly see the blissful festivities of Fezziwig’s party because Dickens uses the idea that lots of people can enjoy themselves dancing together, â€Å"all the young men and women†. Readers are able to apply this to their own memories of gatherings with family or friends, which makes it a piquant read. The happiness and togetherness of this party also allows us to compare jovial Fezziwig with unpleasant Scrooge because there is such a big difference in their characters. Dickens uses very inventive language to allow the reader to understand exactly the ideas he is trying to portray, â€Å"Choked up with too much burying† and this enables the reader to almost feel the atmosphere written in the book. He uses a simile to describe the way in which the Cratchit children react to Tiny Tim’s death, â€Å"as still as statues† and we can fully sense their shocking grief. We can see this is very different behaviour compared with their usual happiness, such as their excitement at Christmas, â€Å"God bless us†. The way he writes that the children were all â€Å"in one corner† gives the image of contraction and trying to find security by closing in together, which helps us to see these saddening representations. A Christmas Carol is very emotive. We have compassion for the Cratchit family and we are upset about Tiny Tim’s illness, but fear is also evoked from the reader because the spirits are so unnatural and powerful. We become very angry with Scrooge for being so parsimonious with his money, but we then gain sympathetic affections towards Scrooge as we see how he was badly treated in the earlier parts of his life. Using these contrasts, Dickens creates different moods throughout the book and the reader feels happiness and companionship as well as distaste and anger. As more emotions are aroused, the reader becomes more involved and begins to enjoy the book with more fascination. As well as these many advantages of the book, giving it the popularity it has acquired, there are also aspects which could reduce the popularity of the book. To modern people, the language may seem bizarre because it is a Victorian style of writing when people had more time to read the book and analyse it properly, because they were not watching television etc. People may find the descriptions and language Dickens uses in the book too complex, â€Å"courses will foreshadow certain end†, which makes it difficult to read and sometimes confusing. It seems almost impossible that the Cratchits can be so happy just because of the closeness between the family, even though they have so many problems with money. Again it is infeasible that Scrooge’s character and attitude to life could change completely overnight, but we accept this because we want him to change for the benefit of others. Charles Dickens shows that Scrooge was once a genuine and moral person, as a young man, when the first spirit recalls Scrooge’s earlier life, â€Å"passion†. We also see the reasons in Scrooge’s adolescence that could have made him such a bitter old man. This is because he is so deprived of love and we know this because Dickens gives evidence that the Father used to be cruel, â€Å"kinder than he used to be†. This gives us reasons to sympathise with him, and helps to believe he could have a good inner heart. He also has a very kind and loving nephew, â€Å"Dine with us†, which shows that there could be righteousness in Scrooge’s blood. These reasons all help us to believe that Scrooge can become a good man again, and support our acceptance of the joy and warmth at the end. A Christmas Carol is a book which contains many hidden meanings and the more it is read, the more interesting ideas we see in it. This is why people continue to create plays and films on the book, so people will understand the whole story fully and the main universal message, that we should be more charitable. There is also a lot of dramatic suspense in the book, because we ask ourselves so many questions. We want to know which aspects the spirits are going to show and how this will influence Scrooge. We hope that Tiny Tim will be able to gain strength to stay alive and we also want to know who the person in the graveyard is. All these confusing questions make the reader anticipate the ending of the book and this gives another reason for it’s continuing popularity. I like the way that there are many subtle details, which highlight the main idea and further encourage me to want to change my way of life, â€Å"altered life†. I enjoy the way he uses symbols and his own ideas to create an impact on the reader. For example the deprived children are a symbol showing the reader what will happen if Scrooge does not change his actions, â€Å"Where angels might have sat enthroned, devils lurked†. The â€Å"angel† and the â€Å"devil† are opposite symbols, which gives emphasis to the degraded children. I can also see that the book is very popular because Scrooge has now become a vernacular part of speech, when we say that someone may have a ‘Scrooge like character’. Charles Dickens. (2017, Sep 26). We have essays on the following topics that may be of interest to you

Thursday, February 13, 2020

SESSION 2 BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS AND OSMOMETRY Lab Report

SESSION 2 BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS AND OSMOMETRY - Lab Report Example rescent molecule, it has to travel through an optical isolator( black coating) to prevent interference by unspecific light with the light detection system. Osmolality measures the total number of osmotically active particles in a solution and is equal to the sum of the molalities of all the solutes present in that solution. The four colligative properties are changed by the dissolving of the solute in solvent. Osmolarity refers to osmoles per litre, whilst osmolality refers to osmoles per kg water( There is a slight difference between plasma molality and molarity because of the non-acqueous components present such as proteins and lipids that make up about 60% of the total volume. Thus serum is only 94% water and the molality of a substance in serum is about 6% higher than its molarity. Molality is preferred because it is independent of temperature). The osmolality of physiological fluids is mainly determined by small molecules that are present in high concentrations. For example in serum, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea and glucose are the only components present in high enough concentrations to individually affect the osmolality. Together these make up over 95% of total osmolality of serum. Larger serum molecules contribute little to the overall osmolality. A useful estimate of the osmolality is calculated from: The difference between the measured and the calculated osmolality is known as the osmolar gap. If there are unmeasured osmotically active species present then these will increase the gap. The normal osmolar gap is up to 10mmol/L and values in excess of this usually indicate the presence of an exogenous agent. The most common is ethanol, but methanol, the ethylene glycol, acetone and isopropyl alcohol will also contribute if present. Different causes of hyponatraemia can be distinguished by serum osmolality measurement. It is increased in hyperosmolar hyronatraemia(eg: hyperglycaemia), normal in psuedohyponatraemia and decreased in